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15-Aug-2017 07:30

The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral ganglia Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago.

Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent.

Recent findings indicate that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, serve as important resident immune cells within the central nervous system.